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Cambodia Detail History

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1 Cambodia geographical
Cambodia is the English’s vision ;  Cambodge Kampuja Kampujadesa are other version from many different countries , They called their country Kampucha or Khmer , Cambodia one of the country located in the Southeast Asia in a part of the Indochina peninsula,  share the border to three different countries ; Thailand to the West and Northwest ( 803 km )  , Loa to the North ( 541 km ) , Vietnam to the Northeast all the way to the South ( 1228 km ) , Border to the Gulf of Thailand on Southwest ( 443 km ) . Kampucha share border more than 2600 km to those three countries . Kampucha run from west to East 560 km North to South 440 km , Comprise with 181,035 square km .
Area; total: 181,035 km²
land: 176,520 km²
water: 4,520 km²

2 Pre-Angkorean Period
 
The pre-historic in Cambodia believed to begin from about 5000 BC According to the researching and excavation done by the Cambodia and foreigners archaeologists , There were a lot of evidences to prove that the fact of Cambodia Pre-historic period subjected on the tools of the daily life needs of the inhabitants they had found such as ; the potteries made of the clay The polished stone material ( the polished stone era  ) Axes Knives Hooks for using to fish and combs .... so on .

The oldest Pre-historic site in Cambodia was Loang Spean in the Battambang province ( present name of the province located at the west of Tonle sap lake ) in this station they found its inhabitants loving in the caves, they also found some fish and animal bones in this site . The archeologists estimated the age of the Loang Spean station for about 5000 to 2000 BC .

The second oldest station was at Memuot in Kom Pong Cham province (present name of the province located at the south part of Cambodia )  ,  in this station the inhabitants stopped living in the caves but they living in a groups within the circle villages. Despite their circle villages comprised the dirt dam surrounding for protection themselves from animal or enemy attack. This station site believed of 2000 to 1500 BC , Now we can see the way they developed themselves  they had improved their living a bit better .

The third station was founded at the Samrong Sen in Kompong Chnang province (present name of the province located at the southeast of Tonle sap ) and other one was at the Molou Prei in Preah Vihear province these two station they had found some of the tools made of the mental ; like Arrows  Hooks for fishing and sickles .... so on the archeologists found human and animal bones . Samrong Sen and Moluo Prei station estimated 1500 to 200 BC , now we can see they developed themselves from being using Polished stone materials to use iron tools

As you see they had improved them selves from living in the caves to the plateau and settle their living in the valley areas that was fact to provide then an opportunity for improving their lives from the Pre-historic to period of Proto-history .

When they moved from the Plateau area to the valley area inhabitants had knowledge to grow rice and to raise the animals such as the water buffalos and horses , as they grown rice that is why that they found many of sickles make of mental sickle had used for the reaping the crops .

The pre-historic of Cambodia ended in between 50 to 100 AD when the inhabitants began contact to Indian and Chinese then the proto-history came to instead of  Pre-historic . By the way Cambodia know how to mine the iron to make the materials for their daily lives used since 1000 to 500 BC, the human bones in the Pre-historic site were suggested very semblance to the modern Cambodia . Chela is considering as the second state of Cambodia

3 Funan State

Funan was one of the oldest state in the Khmer history , this state had established in the first century ( AD ) until 6th century . Funan was the name, called in Chinese records in Cambodia it mean Phanum or Phnom ( english Mountain )
By the way Phnom, Nokor Phnom , or Nokor Kuk Thlok and Funan were the name for the calling Cambodia at the earlier century of Christian era when the Cambodia began to have the history. The Funan or Phnom believed to located at the mouth of the Mekong Delta , which today is in Kampuchea Krom ( in the southern part if Vietnam ). the Northern territory of this Kingdom spread to the present Phnom Pen, and its capital city was “ Vatyathayabori “ which meaning in Khmer as “ City of the Elephant Hunting’s king “ This city was located in Baphnom in Prei Veng province today .
Funan was also know as the state of trade . They made the commercial business with China, India, even some country in Arab world as well . As the trade by the sea with those countries had advanced quickly and there were many groups of settler from oversea increase along its coastline , then causing the state of Funan able to constructed a big international seaport at Okeo which one was located in the Southern part of Vietnam today . A new seaport of the Funan state was becoming a popular spot for the trading ships from China India and some new country in the Southeast Asia also Arab world as well , that is why that make Funan became a most powerful state in the region at that time .
We noted that, the Indian’s idea was in filtering into the Funan societies deeply in the early century AD, A new influence seems to have arrived, due to the present of Indian Hindu rulers in Funan . The main Indian’s concepts implanted in the Southeast Asia during that period of early centuries AD including the instruction of religion both Hinduism and Buddhism , the adoption of Sanskrit language in the court level. The Sanskrit was giving birth to writing system for the new Khmer inscription .

4 Chenla

Chenla is considering as the second state of Cambodia . this state had conquered over the Funan at the sixth century AD ,Chinese chroniclers had recorded some of the political situations of this state , So far the modern scholars did not conclude any proper meaning for the word “of Chenla “ By chinese documents they just only have expressed their opinion for the meaning of Chenla .

Chinese records say “Chenla state was not existed as long as Funan state “ Although, Chenla took control over Funan , but the political situation of Chenla had never been stable . There had always been facing to international conflict amid their rivalry rulers, until causing this state divided into two different part “ Land Chenla to the north “ “ Water Chenla to the south “.

Land Chenla occupied an area located along the upper part of the Mekong River at the present day of Loa . Whereas, Water Chenla had its own territory at the area of the present day of Cambodia and whole area of the former state of Funan. While the land Chenla was getting stability and prosperity to its country and its people , but the water Chenla have had bad challenges with its political unrest situation . An addition there were very bad competition for the power by its monarchs. From this reason, water Chenla feel in to chaotic moment until this state divided its country into many different smaller states and ruled by the series of the weak and selfish kings 

Despite, The water Chenla had separated its country to control by different greedy kings, but the conflict among the themselves still went on and the civil war still occurring. on the other hand, Java was the strong country in the region at that time , they had sent their troops to attack over the water Chenla and after they conquered over this state then they took water Chenla to control as their colony in the eight century AD .

We notice the name of “ Kambuchea “ was appearing in an inscription in the period of Chenla . Especially , in the territory of the Land Chenla where there were powerful kings had ruled, like the king under the name of Pavavarman .. so on, The king Pavavarman who even had also ordered his soldiers to attack the water Chenla , before water Chenla took over by Java .

Capital city of the land Chenla were located at Wat Phu along the Mekong river which today in Lao’s territory . later on they had moved its capital city a bit south to Sambopura at Sambo district of Kratie province today . Particularly ,Water Chenla had its capital city at Angkor Borei of Ta Keo province and other one was at Sombo Prei Kuk at Kompong Thom province today . There were about 6 kings who rule from year 520 to 713 of AD. 

5 Angkorean Period ( Khmer Empire ) 802-1432 )

The golden age of Khmer civilization, however, was the period from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries, when the kingdom of Kambuja , which gave Kampuchea, or Cambodia, its name, ruled large territories from its capital in the region of Angkor in western Cambodia. From 802 to 1220 AD known as the time for building temples a thousand of  temples extending to the whole kingdom ,  there were many great country rulers such as the King Jayavarman II that was built the first city called Hariharalaya roluos ( now located 11 km to the east of Siam Reap town ) AD 802-877 , until the King Jayavarman VII ( 1181-1218, the great temples builder ), Under Jayavarman VII, Kambuja reached its zenith of political power and cultural creativity. Jayavarman VII gained power and territory in a series of successful wars against its close enemies; the Cham and the Vietnamese.
Kings during the Angkor period not built only the temples, king also built more than a thousand water reservoirs, agriculture were top development , all type of Kambuja productions were export to many countries like China India Arab world and others countries in Southeast Asia, This so call the Golden Age.

6 Failing After Angkor period

After the great temple builder died in year 1220 other kings came to power, the administration affair political and religion changed , the political situation wasn’t good , Country ruler very week the war between local were going on , Country divided to many pieces ruling by series of greedy and selfish kings , made the neighbor countries had the good opportunity to shake the country. Capital moved back and ward from one to other places.

7 French colonial Period 1863 -1953

In year 1863 French’s gunboat arrived at the Capital city  Phnom Penh , The King Norodom signed an agreement with French to establish a protectorate over his kingdom . the state gradually came under French colonial domination.
During the World War II , the Japanese allowed the French’s government that collaborated with the republican opponents and attempted to negotiate acceptable terms for independence from the French.
Cambodia's situation at the end of the war was chaotic. The French under General Charles De Gaulle were determined to recover Indochina, though they offered Cambodia and the other Indochina protectorates a carefully circumscribed measure of self-government. Convinced that they had a “ Civilizing Mission “they envisioned Indochina's participation in a French Union of former colonies that shared the common experience of French culture. Sihanouk's "royal crusade for independence" resulted in grudging French acquiescence to his demands for a transfer of sovereignty. A partial agreement was struck in October 1953. Sihanouk then declared that independence had been achieved and returned in triumph to Phnom Penh.

8 Democratic Kampuchea ( Khmer Rough ( French ) / red Khmer ) 1975- 1979

Immediately after its victory, the CPK ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns, sending the entire urban population into the countryside to work as farmers, as the CPK was trying to reshape society into a model that Pol Pot had conceived.
Thousands starved or died of disease during the evacuation and its aftermath. Many of those forced to evacuate the cities were resettled in newly created villages, which lacked food, agricultural implements, and medical care. Many who lived in cities had lost the skills necessary for survival in an agrarian environment. Thousands starved before the first harvest. Hunger and malnutrition—bordering on starvation—were constant during those years. Most military and civilian leaders of the former regime who failed to disguise their pasts were executed.
Within the CPK, the Paris-educated leadership Pol Pot and his assistance were in control. A new constitution in January 1976 established Democratic Kampuchea as a Communist People's Republic, and a 250-member Assembly of the Representatives of the People of Kampuchea (PRA) was selected in March to choose the collective leadership of a State Presidium, the chairman of which became the head of state.
Prince Sihanouk resigned as head of state on April 4. On April 14, after its first session, the PRA announced that Khieu Samphan would chair the State Presidium for a 5-year term. It also picked a 15-member cabinet headed by Pol Pot as prime minister. Prince Sihanouk was put under virtual house arrest.
The new government sought to completely restructure Cambodian society. Remnants of the old society were abolished and religion, particularly Buddhism and Catholicism , was suppressed. Agriculture was collectivized, and the surviving part of the industrial base was abandoned or placed under state control. Cambodia had neither a currency nor a banking system.
Life in 'Democratic Kampuchea' was strict and brutal. In many areas of the country people were rounded up and executed for speaking a foreign language, wearing glasses, scavenging for food, and even crying for dead loved ones. Former businessmen and bureaucrats were ruthlessly hunted down and killed along with their entire families; the Khmer Rouge feared that they held beliefs that could lead them to oppose their regime. A few Khmer Rouge loyalists were even killed for failing to find enough 'counter-revolutionaries' to execute.
Solid estimates of the numbers who died between 1975 and 1979 are not available, but it is likely that hundreds of thousands were brutally executed by the regime. Hundreds of thousands died of starvation and disease (both under the CPK and during the Vietnamese invasion in 1978). Some estimates of the dead range from 1 to 3 million, out of a 1975 population estimated at 7.3 million. The CIA estimated 50,000–100,000 were executed and 1.2 million died from 1975 to 1979.

9 Modern Cambodia ; 1993 Present

On October 23, 1991, the Paris Conference reconvened to sign a comprehensive settlement giving the UN full authority to supervise a cease-fire, repatriate the displaced Khmer along the border with Thailand, disarm and demobilize the factional armies, and prepare the country for free and fair elections. Prince Sihanouk, President of the Supreme National Council of Cambodia (SNC), and other members of the SNC returned to Phnom Penh in November 1991, to begin the resettlement process in Cambodia. The UN Advance Mission for Cambodia (UNAMIC) was deployed at the same time to maintain liaison among the factions and begin demining operations to expedite the repatriation of approximately 370,000 Cambodians from Thailand.
On March 16, 1992, the Un Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) arrived in Cambodia to begin implementation of the UN Settlement Plan. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees began fullscale repatriation in March 1992. UNTAC grew into a 22,000-strong civilian and military peacekeeping force to conduct free and fair elections for a constituent assembly.
Over 4 million Cambodians (about 90% of eligible voters) participated in the May 1993 elections, although the Khmer Rouge or Democratic Kambuchea (PDK), whose forces were never actually disarmed or demobilized, barred some people from participating. Prince (Norodom Ranariddh)  royalist Funcinpec Part  was the top vote recipient with 45.5% of the vote, followed by Hun Sen's Cambodian People Party and the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party, respectively. FUNCINPEC then entered into a coalition with the other parties that had participated in the election. The parties represented in the 120-member assembly proceeded to draft and approve a new constitution, which was promulgated September 24, 1993. It established a multiparty liberal democracy in the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in the Royal Cambodian Government (RGC). The constitution provides for a wide range of internationally recognized human rights.
On October 4, 2004, the Cambodian National Assembly ratified an agreement with the United Nations on the establishment of a tribunal to try senior leaders responsible for the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. Donor countries have pledged the $43 million international share of the three-year tribunal budget, while the Cambodian government’s share of the budget is $13.3 million. The tribunal plans to begin trials of senior Khmer Rouge leaders in 2008.
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